Kindom Monera

 Biologi SMP, Kelas 7
Biologi SMP Kelas 7 : Kindom Monera
 
Pada bagian kingdom ini terdapat hal-hal penting yang perlu diketahui, yaitu:
  1. Monera berasal dari kata monares yang berarti tunggal. 
  2. Mikroorganisme ini memiliki inti tetap, tidak memiliki selubung inti sehingga bersifat prokariotik. Misal: bakteri dan ganggang biru
1) BakteriStruktur bakteri masih sangat sederhana tetapi mempunyai peranan yang penting. Umumnya tidak memiliki klorofil dan bersifat heterotrof. Tempat hidup bakteri di mana-mana misalnya di kulit, di mulut, di tanah, dan sebagainya. Berdasarkan bentuknya bakteri dibedakan menjadi 3 macam yaitu :
Bacillus : bakteri berbentuk batang atau basil. Terdapat tiga macam bentuk bacillus, yaitu :
  • Streptobacil, berbentuk panjang seperti rantai. Contoh: Bacillus antrhracis, penyebab penyakit antraks 
  • Diplobasil, berkelompok dua-dua.
  • Basil tunggal.
Coccus : bakteri berbentuk bola. Terdapat lima macam bentuk coccus, yaitu:
  • Monococcus, tunggal 
  • Diplococcus, berkoloni dua-dua
  • Sreptococcus, seperti rantai Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam – Kelas VII SMP/MTs 207
  • Staphylococcus, seperti buah anggur
  • Sarcina, berbentuk kubus.
Spirillum : bakteri berbentuk spiral. Terdapat tiga macam bentuk spririllum, yaitu :
  • Spiral, berbentuk lebih dari setengah lingkaran 
  • Koma, berbentuk kurang dari setengah lingkaran
  • Spirochaeta, berbentuk sulur berpilin.
Terdapat bakteri yang menguntungkan dan merugikan bagi kehidupan manusia. Bakteri yang menguntungkan bagi manusia, antara lain :

Clostridium pasteurianum dan Azotobacter chroococcum ; mengikat nitrogen sehingga dapat menyuburkan tanah.
 
Rhizobium radicicola; terdapat dalam bintil akar kacang dapat menyuburkan tanah.
Bakteri yang merugikan bagi manusia, antara lain :
  • Salmonella typhosa, penyebab penyakit tipus. 
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis, penyebab penyakit TBC.
  • Clostridium tetani, pemyebab penyakit tetanus
  • Shigella dysentriae, penyebab penyakit disentri.
2) Ganggang biru (Chyanophyta). 

Kindom Monera

Merupakan ganggang bersel satu, berbentuk koloni atau multisel. Selain mempunyai klorofil karotenoid juga mempunyai pigmen yang tergolong fibobilin yaitu fikosianin berwarna biru dan fikoeritrin berwarna merah. Mengapa diberi nama ganggang biru? Nama ganggang biru, sebab warna yang dominan berwarna biru. Manfaat ganggang biru, antara lain: Anabaena azollae digunakan sebagai pupuk, Spirullina sebagai bahan makanan yang mengandung protein dan lain–lain.

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