Tulang Penyusun Rangka Tubuh

 Biologi SMP, Kelas 8
Bilogi SMP Kelas 8 : Tulang Penyusun Rangka Tubuh
Tulang penyusun rangka manusia dapat dengan jelas kita lihat dan amati pada torso atau model rangka manusia. Di torso dengan jelas diperlihatkan rangka penyusun tubuh manusia dari ujung kepala sampai kaki.
Tulang-tulang yang menyusun rangka tubuh manusia dapat dikelompokkan menjadi tiga bagian:
1. tulang tengkorak, terdiri dari:  
  • tulang tempurung kepala; 
  • tulang tengkorak bagian muka;
2. tulang badan, terdiri dari:
  • tulang belakang; 
  • tulang dada;
  • tulang rusuk;
  • tulang gelang bahu;
  • tulang gelang panggul; dan
3. tulang anggota gerak, yang terdiri dari:  
  • tulang anggota gerak bagian atas; 
  • tulang gerak bagian bawah.
Rangka tubuh bagi manusia memiliki fungsi sebagai berikut.
  1. Memberi bentuk, contohnya tulang tengkorak yang memberi bentuk pada wajah. 
  2. Sebagai penopang tubuh, contohnya tulang kaki yang menopang seluruh tubuh.
  3. Melindungi organ-organ dalam, contohnya tulangtulang rusuk yang melindungi jantung dan paru-paru.
  4. Alat gerak pasif.
  5. Tempat melekatnya otot, misalnya pada tulang kering (tibia) menempel otot. Secara garis besar, tulang penyusun rangka tubuh terbagi menjadi tiga bagian, yaitu tulang tengkorak, tulang anggota badan, dan tulang anggota gerak.

1. Tulang Tengkorak
Tulang tengkorak merupakan tulang pembentuk kepala. Tulang-tulang tengkorak sebagian besar disusun tulang yang berbentuk pipih. Tulang-tulang tersebut saling berhubungan membentuk tengkorak. Di dalam tengkorak ini terdapat mata, otak, dan organ lainnya yang terlindung oleh tulangtulang tengkorak tersebut. Tulang tengkorak tersusun atas tulang pipi, tulang rahang, tulang mata, tulang hidung, tulang dahi, tulang ubun-ubun, tulang pelipis, dan tulang baji. Agar lebih jelas, perhatikan gambar berikut.
 
Tengkorak Manusia

2. Tulang Anggota Badan
Tulang anggota badan tersusun oleh tulang belakang, tulang dada, tulang rusuk, dan gelang panggul. Masing-masing tulang tersebut membentuk kesatuan. Tulang anggota badan berfungsi melindungi organ-organ dalam yang lunak, seperti jantung, paru-paru, ginjal, dan organ lainnya.
Tulang belakang manusia
a. Tulang Belakang
Tulang belakang tersusun atas ruas-ruas tulang yang fleksibel, tetapi kuat. Tulang belakang terdiri atas 33 ruas, yaitu 7 ruas tulang leher, 12 ruas tulang punggung, 5 ruas tulang pinggang, 5 ruas tulang kelangkang (sakrum), dan 4 ruas tulang ekor.
b. Tulang Dada
Tulang dada terletak dekat tulang rusuk atau lebih tepatnya di tengah-tengah dada. Tulang dada terdiri atas bagian hulu, badan, dan taju pedang.
c. Tulang Rusuk
Tulang rusuk pada manusia terdiri atas 24 buah atau 12 pasang. Tulang rusuk manusia memiliki fungsi sebagai pelindung organ-organ dalam, seperti jantung dan paruparu. Tulang rusuk manusia, terdiri atas 7 pasang tulang rusuk sejati, 3 pasang tulang rusuk palsu, dan 2 pasang tulang rusuk melayang.

Tulang rusuk manusia

 

d. Tulang Panggul
Gelang panggul atau tulang panggul terletak di ujung bawah tulang belakang. Gelang panggul terdiri atas 2 tulang usus (ilium), 2 tulang kemaluan (ischium), dan 2 tulang duduk (pubis).

Tulang panggul manusia
3. Tulang Anggota Gerak
Tulang anggota gerak pada manusia terdiri atas tulang anggota gerak bagian atas (tangan) dan tulang anggota gerak bagian bawah (kaki). Masing-masing tulang tersebut tersusun oleh beberapa tulang. Apakah kamu tahu penyusun tulang anggota gerak bagian atas dan bagian bawah? Tulang anggota gerak bagian atas atau tangan terbentuk dari tulang lengan atas (humerus), tulang pengumpil (radius), dan tulang hasta (ulna). Adapun tulang penyusun anggota gerak bagian bawah adalah tulang paha (femur), tulang betis (fibula), dan tulang kering (tibia). Untuk lebih jelasnya, perhatikan gambar berikut.

Tulang anggota gerak

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